Gut hormone secretion by enteroendocrine cells in human ileum and colon

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  • Thesis download: available for open access on 3 Jan 2022.

Sun, Emily, 2018 Gut hormone secretion by enteroendocrine cells in human ileum and colon, Flinders University, College of Medicine and Public Health

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Abstract

Type 2 diabetes (T2D), a metabolic disease strongly associated with obesity, represents a tremendous burden on healthcare systems worldwide. The curative effect of bariatric surgery indicates T2D pathogenesis has a significant gastrointestinal component. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are specialized endocrine cells dispersed throughout the gut epithelium and collectively constitute the largest endocrine organ in the body. Although gut hormones are implicated in maintaining glucose homeostasis and energy balance, our understanding of the mechanisms governing their secretion in humans remains largely incomplete.This work aimed to elucidate some of the regulatory pathways that govern the release of the gut hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY from L cells, a subtype of enteroendocrine cells dispersed throughout the gut epithelium.Having first developed an ex vivo secretion assay using human gut tissue, I demonstrated that many pathways govern L cell secretion exist in humans, although some major differences were also observed to those observed in rodents. The platform was also used to confirm recent findings of gut-derived glucagon, which could represent a new potential therapeutic target for treating T2D.

Keywords: enteroendocrine, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, glucagon

Subject: Human Physiology thesis

Thesis type: Doctor of Philosophy
Completed: 2018
School: College of Medicine and Public Health
Supervisor: Damien Keating