Using origin-destination data to determine the potential for electric vehicles to become virtual power plants

Author: Rider Hugo Reategui Gomez

Reategui Gomez, Rider Hugo, 2022 Using origin-destination data to determine the potential for electric vehicles to become virtual power plants, Flinders University, College of Science and Engineering

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The purpose of this project is to use data MASTEM (data traditionally used by the DPTI) to estimate how much charge is remaining when the Electric Vehicle (EV) arrives at its final destination/home in Metropolitan Adelaide. The research question is that these vehicles could become part of a Virtual Power Plant (VPP). EV batteries can provide energy to the home during peak energy demand, thereby reducing peak demand.

Regarding the methodology used in this research, it has been analysed the number of trips in 24 hours, the distance between each zone. Then we estimate of vehicle kilometres of travel (VKT), the EVs sales in South Australia, the estimation of average EV Energy Consumption (Wh/km), and the estimation of average Battery Capacity (kWh). Having their average we use their confidence intervals: Lower & Upper boundary. To calculate the number of vehicles we started with the registered vehicles by postcode to obtain the vehicles by MASTEM Zones. Having this we calculate the Energy Remaining in EVs, the number of vehicles in each scenario. Also, we estimate Electricity Consumption in South Australia, and the distribution of driving distances to analyze the existing data. Likewise, for the purposes of calculating and estimating, some assumptions have been made, such as i) it has been considered that all vehicles in SA are EVs and ii) Vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) from one travel analysed zone to all other zones are round trips in each zone.

The results were analysed for three scenarios: the lower boundary, the mean, and the upper boundary (95% confidence intervals). Total energy storage for the lower boundary was 26,560,050 kWh, the mean was 35,496,603 kWh and for the upper boundary was 44,437,236 kWh. It was also estimated that the electricity consumption per day in South Australia is 10,270,582 kWh. This shows that in the less favourable scenario, the batteries of the EVs could cover the energy demand of the SA population, assuming that the entire fleet of vehicles is electric.

Keywords: origin-destination data, electric vehicles, virtual power plants, vehicle kilometres of travel, energy consumption, battery capacity, electricity consumption, South Australia

Subject: Engineering thesis

Thesis type: Masters
Completed: 2022
School: College of Science and Engineering
Supervisor: Rocco Zito