Word Segmentation and Ambiguity in English and Chinese NLP & IR

Author: Jin Hu Huang

Huang, Jin Hu, 2011 Word Segmentation and Ambiguity in English and Chinese NLP & IR, Flinders University, School of Computer Science, Engineering and Mathematics

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Abstract

Statistical language learning is the problem of applying machine learning technique to extracting useful information from large corpus. It is important in both statistical natural language processing and information retrieval. In this thesis, we attempt to build some statistical language learning and modeling algorithms to solve some problems in both English and Chinese natural language processing. These problems include context sensitive spelling correction in English, adaptive language modeling for Chinese Pinyin input, Chinese word segmentation and classification, and Chinese information retrieval. Context sensitive spelling correction is a word disambiguation process to identify the word-choice errors in text. It corrects real-word spelling errors made by users when another word was intended. We build large scale confused word sets based on keyboard adjacency. Then we collect the statistics based on the surrounding words using affix information and the most frequent functional words. We store the contexts significant enough to make a choice among the confused words and apply this contextual knowledge to detect and correct the real-word errors. In our experiments we explore the performance of auto-correction under conditions where significance and probability are set by the user. The technique we developed in this thesis can be used to resolve lexical ambiguity in the syntactic sense. Chinese Pinyin-to-character conversion is another task of word disambiguation. Chinese character can't be entered by keyboard directly. Pinyin is the phonetic transcription of Chinese characters using the Roman alphabet. The process of Pinyin-to-character conversion, similar to speech recognition, is to decode the sequence of Pinyin syllables into corresponding characters based on statistical n-gram language models. The performance of Chinese Pinyin-to-Character conversion is severely affected when the characteristics of the training and conversion data differs. As natural language is highly variable and uncertain, it is impossible to build a complete and general language model to suit all the tasks. The traditional adaptive maximum a posteriori (MAP) models mix the task independent model with task dependent model using a mixture coefficient but we never can predict what style of language users have and what new domain will appear. We present a statistical error-driven adaptive n-gram language model to Pinyin-to-character conversion. This n-gram model can be incrementally adapted during Pinyin-to-Character converting time. We use a conversion error function to select what kind of data to adapt the model. The adaptive model significantly improves Pinyin-to-Character conversion rate. Most Asian languages such as Chinese and Japanese are written without natural delimiters, so word segmentation is an essential first step in Asian language processing. Processing at higher levels will be impossible if there is no effective word segmentation. Chinese word segmentation is a basic research issue on Chinese language processing tasks such as information extraction, information retrieval, machine translation, text classification, automatic text summarization, speech recognition, text-to-speech, natural language understanding, and so on. This thesis presents a purely statistical approach to segment Chinese sequences into words based on contextual entropy on both sides of a bi-gram. It is used to capture the dependency with the left and right contexts in which a bi-gram occurs. Our approach tries to segment text by finding the word boundaries instead of the words. Although developed for Chinese it is language independent and easy to adapt to other languages, and it is particularly robust and effective for Chinese word segmentation. Traditional information retrieval systems for European languages such as English use words as indexing units and thus cannot apply directly to Asian languages such as Chinese and Japanese due to lack of word delimiters. A pre-processing stage called segmentation has to be performed to determine the boundaries of words before traditional IR approaches based on words can be adapted to Chinese language. Different segmentation approaches, N-grams based or word based, have their own advantages and disadvantages. No conclusion has been reached among different researchers as to which segmentation approach is better or more appropriate for the purpose of IR even on standard Chinese TREC corpus. In this thesis we investigate the impact of these two segmentation approaches on Chinese information retrieval using standard Chinese TREC 5 & 6 corpus. We analyze why some approaches may work effectively in some queries but work poorly in other queries. This analysis is of theoretical and practical importance to Chinese information retrieval.

Keywords: Chinese information retrival,Chinese word segementation,Pinyin-to-charater conversion,context sensiive spelling correction,Chinese natural language processing,statical language modelling
Subject: Computer Science thesis

Thesis type: Doctor of Philosophy
Completed: 2011
School: School of Computer Science, Engineering and Mathematics
Supervisor: Professor David Powers