Integrated water resources management for transboundary catchments in Indonesia: A case study of Krueng Aceh Catchment, Aceh Province

Author: . Joni

Joni, ., 2019 Integrated water resources management for transboundary catchments in Indonesia: A case study of Krueng Aceh Catchment, Aceh Province, Flinders University, College of Science and Engineering

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Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) may face a range of challenges and barriers when it is implemented in a transboundary catchment, which is a catchment that lies in different administrative or governance areas. Successful implementation requires both hydro-technical approaches to engineering design and hydro-political attention in negotiations that can create holistic policy areas across transboundary catchments. This research focuses on the Krueng Aceh catchment that covers the two administrative authorities of Banda Aceh City in the downstream area and Aceh Besar Regency in the upstream area. Both of these decentralized areas are under the governance of Aceh Province, Indonesia.

This research explores the hydrological responses and externalities that arise due to land use/land cover (LULC) change in the Krueng Aceh catchment. It utilises HEC-HMS modelling, sediment transport analysis, water balance simulation and economic valuation analysis to investigate the impacts of LULC change in the upstream and downstream areas. Moreover, this research develops solutions using multi criteria decision making (MCDM) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) analyses for IWRM implementation based on an economic compensation scheme, where payment for environmental services (PES) can be applied in cooperation between the decentralized areas.

The research found that LULC change from 1988 to 2012 resulted in significant forest loss and increased open land cover types and has altered the long-term hydrological regime of the catchment. This has resulted in increased high flow events during the wet season and decreased low flow in the dry season. As a consequence of this, sediment transport has increased in the catchment during this period. The changing hydrological regime and sediment delivery result in externalities for the catchment to the water service provider (PDAM Tirta Daroy) in the downstream area through increased cost for water purification, it also impacts paddy fields in the upstream area due to shortage of water. For PDAM Tirta Daroy, the cost for water purification increased from USD 205,232 under LULC 1988 to USD 215,192 under LULC 2012, and the cost is predicted to increase to USD 447,442 by 2040 if the same trends in LULC change continue. In the upstream areas of the catchment, it is predicted that the paddy field water shortages cause significant economic losses from reduced rice production. In this research various scenarios of LULC change under potential climate change effects on rainfall patterns and projected water demands in 2040 have been modelled to predict impacts and to provide a framework for decision making by government in IWRM. It is found that when controls are implemented to manage LULC change in combination with the application of payment of environmental services (PES) to the upstream communities, and with consideration of factors of crop management practice, land management and reduced sediment transport, significant social, economic and environmental outcomes can be achieved in the catchment.

Keywords: Water Resources Management, Transboundary Catchment, payment for environmental services, hydrological modelling

Subject: Water Resources Management thesis

Thesis type: Doctor of Philosophy
Completed: 2019
School: College of Science and Engineering
Supervisor: Prof. Okke Batelaan