Preventing anaphylaxis to venom of the jack jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula)

Author: Simon Geoffrey Archer Brown

Brown, Simon Geoffrey Archer, 2003 Preventing anaphylaxis to venom of the jack jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula), Flinders University, School of Medicine

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Abstract

Background: Myrmecia pilosula (the jack jumper ant, JJA) is the principal cause of ant venom anaphylaxis in Australia. Whereas honeybee and wasp venom allergy can be treated by venom immunotherapy (VIT), no such treatment is available for ant sting allergy. In addition, information on the natural history of JJA sting allergy is required to identify those most likely to benefit from immunotherapy. The main objectives of this research were to establish: (i) the prevalence, natural history and determinants of reaction severity for JJA allergy, and; (ii) the efficacy and tolerability of JJA VIT. Methods: A search of the Royal Hobart Hospital (RHH) forensic register, a random telephone survey, and a review of emergency department (ED) presentations were performed. Three hundred eighty-eight JJA allergic volunteers were assessed, including serum venom-specific IgE RAST, and then followed up for accidental stings over a 4-year period. Finally, a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of JJA VIT was performed. Laboratory parameters measured during the trial were; leukocyte stimulation index (SI), IL-4 production, IgE RAST, histamine release test (HRT), leukotriene release test (LRT) and basophil activation test (BAT). Intradermal venom skin testing (VST) was also performed at trial entry. Findings: The prevalence of JJA sting allergy was 2.7% in the Tasmanian population, compared to 1.4% for honeybee. People aged 35 or older had a greater risk of both sting allergy and hypotensive reactions. Four deaths were identified, all in adults with significant comorbidities. During follow-up, 79 (70%) of 113 accidental jack jumper stings caused systemic reactions. Only prior worst reaction severity predicted the severity of follow-up reactions, with the majority of people experiencing similar or less severe reactions when stung again. Sixty-eight otherwise healthy JJA allergic adult volunteers were enrolled in the clinical trial. Systemic reactions to therapy were recorded in 34% during VIT. Objectively defined systemic reactions to sting challenges arose in 1/35 after VIT (mild self-limiting urticaria only) versus 21/29 in the placebo group. Treatment with oxygen, intravenous adrenaline infusion and volume resuscitation was effective and well tolerated. Hypotension was always accompanied by a relative bradycardia, which was severe and treated with atropine in two patients. In the placebo group, only VST and HRT were predictive of sting challenge results. Although IgE RAST, leukocyte SI and IL-4 production, LRT and BAT all correlated well with VST, they did not predict sting challenge outcome. After successful VIT, venom-induced leukocyte IL-4 production tended to fall, whereas IgE RAST increased and a natural decline in HRT reactivity was reversed. Interpretation: VIT is highly effective in prevention of JJA sting anaphylaxis and is likely to be of most benefit to people with a history of severe systemic reactions, which usually occur in people aged over 35. Neurocardiogenic mechanisms &/or direct cardiac effects may be important factors in some anaphylaxis deaths. Systemic reactions to immunotherapy are common and require immediate access to resuscitation facilities. The HRT warrants further investigation as a test for selecting those most likely to benefit from VIT. None of the tests evaluated appear to be reliable markers of successful VIT.

Keywords: anaphylaxis,jack jumper ant,Myrmecia pilosula,venom allergy,venom immunotherapy,desensitisation
Subject: Clinical immunology thesis

Thesis type: Doctor of Philosophy
Completed: 2003
School: School of Medicine
Supervisor: Dr Robert J Heddle