Mobile Learning Based ICT Training for Teachers in Indonesia

Author: Iin Yusri

Yusri, Iin, 2018 Mobile Learning Based ICT Training for Teachers in Indonesia, Flinders University, College of Science and Engineering

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This thesis presents the result of a study aimed to develop, and implement, a mobile learning system for information and communication technology (ICT) training for teachers in Indonesia. The objectives of this study are to investigate the possibility of using mobile phones as a medium to deliver training for teachers in Indonesia, and to assess teachers’ perceptions, readiness and acceptance of mobile learning in order to propose a model of ICT training for teachers.

This study began with a review of teachers and their use of mobile phones in the Indonesian context. This was followed by a survey to investigate teachers’ readiness for mobile learning using mobile phones. A prototype of a training system was developed in order to introduce and demonstrate the training system to teachers. A second survey was carried out to assess teachers’ acceptance of mobile learning for ICT training. Finally, the findings were combined to develop a model of ICT training.

The review of teachers showed that teachers in Indonesia were required to have ICT skills to meet the competencies set by regulation. However, many teachers were unable to meet the requirements. ICT training programs provided by stakeholders to support teachers’ ICT skill development had time, cost, and geographic challenges, as well as limited seat availability preventing teachers from participating in the training. The review found that a mobile phone is the most suitable device for mobile learning due to its extensive use, low cost of services, and the wide coverage of the mobile network.

A survey was conducted to investigate teachers’ readiness for mobile learning. The survey collected information about teachers’ mobile phones, ICT activities, training experiences, and also their perceptions about mobile learning. The survey found that teachers in Indonesia had access to, and were capable of using, their mobile phone as a medium of training. They had positive perceptions of mobile learning and looked forward to engaging in mobile learning.

A prototype of a mobile learning program via mobile phone was developed and trialled to give a mobile learning experience to teachers. The trial confirmed that mobile learning for ICT training via mobile phones was able to solve problems in delivering training to teachers who had geographical challenges and time constraints. This trial study also confirmed the mobility characteristics of mobile learning, which were supported by the portability and features of the mobile phone.

Another survey was carried out to investigate the factors influencing teachers’ acceptance of mobile learning. The results showed that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived mobility value, institutional influence, and self-efficacy affected 53% of teachers’ intention to use mobile learning. Of the factors investigated, perceived mobility value was the strongest in affecting teachers’ acceptance of mobile learning, followed by institutional influence and perceived usefulness. Perceived ease of use and self-efficacy did not have a direct effect.

The outcomes of this study led to the development of a training model giving an overview of elements that need to be addressed in mobile learning for teacher training. The training model consists of five components; mobile phone, training curriculum, activities, support and reward, and promotion. The model is proposed as a road map for the development of a mobile learning project in teacher training in Indonesia. Teacher-training providers can use this model as a reference in developing a mobile-learning-based training program.

Keywords: mobile learning, ICT training, teacher training

Subject: Computer Science thesis

Thesis type: Doctor of Philosophy
Completed: 2018
School: College of Science and Engineering
Supervisor: Dr. Carl Mooney