Synthetic Studies Towards the Tridachione Family of Marine Natural Products

Author: Milena Kasprzyk

Kasprzyk, Milena, 2008 Synthetic Studies Towards the Tridachione Family of Marine Natural Products, Flinders University, School of Chemistry, Physics & Earth Sciences

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Since the middle of the 20th century, significant interest has evolved from the scientific community towards the polypropionate family of marine natural products. A number of these compounds have been shown to possess significant biological activity, and this property, as well as their structural complexity, has driven numerous efforts towards their synthesis. The first chapter provides an introduction into the world of polypropionates, with a discussion on synthetic studies into a number of members of the tridachiapyrone family. Fundamental synthetic concepts utilised in this thesis towards the preparation of polyketides are also described, with a focus on their application towards the synthesis of 9,10-deoxytridachione, anti tridachiahydropyrone and syn tridachiahydropyrone. Chapter 2 describes the work undertaken towards the total synthesis of 9,10-deoxytridachione. The novel tandem conjugate addition-Dieckmann condensation of complex enones developed previously in the Perkins group was used to generate anti methylated cyclohexenones as key synthetic intermediates. The conversion of the cyclohexenones into the corresponding cyclohexadienes via allylic alcohols was attempted, utilising a Grignard-mediated reaction to achieve the selective 1,2-reduction. Studies into the Grignard-mediated reduction were also undertaken on seven additional cyclohexenones, in order to investigate the utility and scope of the reaction. The extension of the methodology previously developed for the synthesis of cyclohexenones is the subject of Chapter 3. This section describes investigations into the synthesis of stereochemically-diverse cyclohexenones from complex enones. The conjugate addition-Dieckmann condensation strategy was extended successfully towards the synthesis of a syn methylated cyclohexenone, which allowed the synthesis of the proposed true structure of tridachiahydropyrone to be pursued. The methodology developed in Chapter 3 was utilised in Chapter 4 to synthesise a model system of syn tridachiahydropyrone. A comparative analysis of the NMR data of the syn model, an anti model and anti tridachiahydropyrone with the natural product indicated that the true structure of tridachiahydropyrone may indeed have syn stereochemistry. The synthesis of syn tridachiahydropyrone was attempted, and to this end a suitable cyclohexanone was successfully synthesised. However, the subsequent methylation-elimination cascade failed to furnish the desired syn methylated cyclohexenone, producing only an anti methylated cyclohexanone. The stereochemistry of the methylation was deduced using high and low variable temperature NMR coupled with selective irradiation NOESY.

Keywords: polypropionates,polyketides,tridachiapyrone,9,10-deoxytridachione,tandem conjugate addition-Dieckmann condensation,cuprate addition,Grignard-mediated reduction,allylic alcohols,tridachiahydropyrone,cyclohexenones,variable temperature NMR,selective irradiation NOESY
Subject: Chemistry thesis

Thesis type: Doctor of Philosophy
Completed: 2008
School: School of Chemical and Physical Sciences
Supervisor: Michael Perkins