Optimal sizing of distributed renewable and battery storage systems for Australian residential consumers

Author: Rahmat Khezri

  • Thesis download: available for open access on 27 Apr 2023.

Khezri, Rahmat, 2021 Optimal sizing of distributed renewable and battery storage systems for Australian residential consumers, Flinders University, College of Science and Engineering

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Abstract

Recently, renewable energy resources and battery energy storages are broadly used in Australian residential sector to decrease the electricity cost. The installed renewable energy resources, such as solar photovoltaic and wind turbine, supply the loads of the residential consumer and export the extra power to the main grid, with a certain feed-in-tariff rate. The recent feed-in-tariff rates are, however, not significant so that make a high profitability by the renewable energy resources. On the other hand, the electricity generation of renewable energy resources is accounted as an uncertainty which may not match with the electricity profile of consumers. Adding battery energy storage to the renewable energy resources in residential sector is, therefore, becoming a key component to reach higher profitability with higher usage of renewable power in the residential. Since the costs of renewable energy resources and battery energy storages are still heavy for the consumers and there is no specific guideline to show that what capacity of components should be purchased, a practical optimal sizing and subsequently an accurate guideline are crucial.

This thesis develops optimal sizing frameworks for renewable energy resources and battery energy storages in grid-connected and standalone Australian residential sector. The main aim of optimal sizing is to minimise the cost of electricity of electricity consumers. Actual data set of electricity profiles, weather data such as wind speed and solar insolation, market prices of renewable energy resources and battery energy storage, as well as electricity prices in Australian context are used as input data for optimal sizing. Rule-based home energy management systems are conducted for the operation of the systems.

A practical guideline is rendered for the consumers to purchase the right capacity of solar photovoltaic and battery energy storage to minimise their electricity cost. This guideline is generated based on the household’s average daily electricity consumption and available rooftop area for solar photovoltaic installation. An appropriate annual cash flow analysis is conducted for grid-connected households with solar photovoltaic and battery energy storage. A home energy management system is developed for grid-connected households with wind turbine, battery energy storage, and electric vehicle. A novel demand side management strategy is developed to decrease the optimal capacity of battery energy storage for standalone residential households in South Australian remote areas. The demand side management strategy is based on the state-of-charge level of battery energy storage and day-ahead forecasts of solar insolation and wind speed. The core of the demand side management is a fuzzy logic method which decides for efficient load shifting and/or load curtailment. A multi-objective optimal sizing of wind turbine, solar photovoltaic and battery energy storage is conducted based on triple objectives: (1) cost of electricity, (2) grid dependency, and (3) total curtailed energy. The developed optimal sizing framework depends on a long-period operation of the system by considering battery degradation, stochastic behaviour of renewable generation and electricity profile, as well as updated electricity price.

Keywords: battery energy storage, electricity market, home energy management, optimal sizing, planning, renewable energy, residential sector

Subject: Engineering thesis

Thesis type: Doctor of Philosophy
Completed: 2021
School: College of Science and Engineering
Supervisor: Amin Mahmoudi